Accolades A Collection of Student Scholarship

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Found 8 Accolades
  • 2017

Terrorism and Insurgency Revisited

Author: Brittany Biglari
Abstract:

Terrorism and insurgencies as strategies, have been conducted on behalf of states and have occurred within states, by non-state entities in the Middle East. While the contexts of terrorism and those of an insurgency are distinct in its features, there is much contention surrounding the application, as terrorists have waged both terrorism and an insurgency at the same time in efforts to shape varying political outcomes.

This paper will seek to explore the differences between insurgencies and terrorism as strategies specifically within Iraq, and the West's counterinsurgency and counterterrorism responses in addressing such issues, specifically through the use of force and repressive responses. Furthermore, this paper will explore how counterinsurgency and counterterrorism approaches are conducted in accordance to international law, and any implications which occur as a result of this application, in terms of the West's capacity to respond.

  • 2017

Narcocaudillos: A New Technique for Conducting Asymmetrical Warfare

Author: Patrick Simon
Abstract:

The narcocaudillos of Mexico converted from mere smugglers to arbiters of political power willing to initiate insurgencies when the federal government challenged their authority and threatened their economic standing. Many scholars disagree with this assessment and believe that an insurgency must have political-military goals; however, Mexican narcocaudillos are conducting an insurgency with a business-commercial motive based on the new urban insurgency model. They outsource functions outside of their scope of interest to the Mexican federal government, functions such as international political relations and military power, while maintaining tangible political authority throughout the country domestically. Thus, increasing their freedom of movement. Their strategy and methods are more reminiscent of traditional insurgents rather than smugglers or criminal syndicates.  This study forwards the claim that Mexican narcocaudillos conduct an insurgency in Mexico that adheres to the new urban insurgency model. This claim is convoluted at best given the preconceived notions on the concept of insurgency itself to include the belief that non-state actors must have a political-military motivation before being labeled an insurgency. The motives of non-state actors should not solely determine whether the group receives the designation of insurgent.

  • 2017

SCADA Fusion with Commercial Fission

Author: Matthew Horner
Abstract:

Nuclear power plants, as well as most other power plants, rely on digital components to perform daily operations. Many of these components are supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) devices that can contain software vulnerabilities. In order to address SCADA and other cyber threats, the regulating body for nuclear power plants, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), has issued directives for licensed operators to develop and submit cybersecurity plans for their facilities. However, while the guidance is on par with cybersecurity programs in other sectors, the application may be inadequate; protection against cyber-attacks is growing more important as SCADA systems become more standardized and connected to other networks. In addition to resilient components, improvements like redundancy, whitelisting, and intrusion detection systems (IDS) can help improve a SCADA control network. Ultimately, a culture shift in the nuclear power industry may be required to improve the actions of nuclear operators and supervisors. Creation of an information sharing and analysis center (ISAC) can also provide anonymous lessons learned and expertise to the NRC and nuclear power plants in the US.

  • 2017

Financial Objectives and Strategies for the Company

Author: Andre Petion
Abstract:

State Street Bank and the division of State Street Corporation, also known as State Street, is an American worldwide service holding company. State Street provides investment management, servicing and administration; research and trading; and financial data. Build from more than 20,000 portfolios with assets exceeding $2 trillion, State Street proprietary universe of data to help to better understand the client performance.

  • 2017

Marching on Anacostia: The Bonus Army and the Defiance of Douglas MacArthur

Author: Nicholas Salamore
Abstract:

On July 28, 1932, federal troops were called on to restore order in Washington, DC. Following months of peaceful protest, a deadly clash between district police and World War I veterans, organized under the banner of the Bonus Army, threatened to engulf the capital in violence. Under the supervision of Army Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur, infantry, cavalry, and tanks moved through the city and forced the veterans from their shanty encampments. When MacArthur reached the bridge that separated the city, President Herbert Hoover balked and ordered that the operation come to a halt. Defiant, MacArthur pushed on across the Anacostia River, leaving smoldering piles of ash and debris on a field that once housed thousands of veterans and their families.

This paper seeks to understand MacArthur’s defiance by placing it within the context of earlier interventions of federal troops into outbreaks of domestic disorder caused by labor unrest. By analyzing the Bonus Army Riot from this perspective, MacArthur’s decision to pursue a decisive end to the protest is not anomalous. Rather, what emerges is an understanding of how the Bonus Army Riot fits into the broader history of military intervention into civil unrest.

  • 2017

The Future of Kurdistan in a Resource Constrained Environment

Author: Jeffrey Boyer
Abstract:

This paper, through the use of quantitative and qualitative analysis, intends to demonstrate how the continued development of Kurdistan toward a free and independent state will aid in suppressing regional sectarian strife and demonstrate the capacity for a democratic society to successfully exist in the Middle East. Analysis supports the need for an independent Kurdistan by highlighting the existence of the Kurdish diaspora in the border regions. Kurdistan must first demonstrate its capacity to stimulate a productive economic system through the oil and water industries.  Furthermore, it highlights the utility of garnering support from both the international community and national governments to recognize the Kurds as an ethnic population deserving of civil rights equivalent to the national majority. It is imperative that the Kurds strive to stifle the conflict between Syrian Kurds, Turkish Kurds, and Iranian Kurds with their respective governments. Through a cooperative effort emanating from the autonomous region of Iraqi, Kurdistan’s stability can be fomented in the region. However, this cannot be successful without securing Kurdistan’s access to currently diminishing water supplies. Furthermore, the construction, protection, and unfettered use of a pipeline that will bring Kurdish oil to the international market through Turkey into the port of Cehyan is essential. In conclusion, the moderate social atmosphere of Kurdistan, coupled with continued economic stimulation, will discount international reticence of a free and independent Kurdish state.

  • 2017

Averting Death: Civil Resistance, Social Networks and International Players in the Rwandan Genocide

Author: Anatasia Schafer
Abstract:

The ethnic cleansing of Tutsis in Rwanda was a neighborhood genocide where the regions, prefectures, and neighborhoods within the country all endured different experiences in April, May and June of 1994. Depending on parochial loyalties, local authorities and neighborly relationships, the genocide was experienced in very different ways. The research behind the smaller events of the genocide at the micro-level within prefectures and neighborhoods is new but developing. Analyzing the genocide within the context of the experiences and stories, along with UN reports and rescuer testimonies offers a unique, traumatic, and subaltern perspective of how the events unfolded. A socio-psychological lens helps to extract the whys and the hows of the genocide through asking questions such as: Why did the genocide occur in some places in Rwanda and not others? How were neighbors able to kill their neighbors? Why were places of safety used as sites of mass murder? And finally, how did the lack of international involvement affect the location or rate of violence and death? Swayed by fear, hatred or hope of reward, thousands of Hutu Rwandans chose to kill, rape, and rob their Tutsi neighbors. The strategy of ethnic division within local and national regions throughout Rwanda created a rift between neighbors, friends and families that ultimately ended in brutal bloodshed. However, the Rwandan genocide occurred with more vigor and at faster rates in some places over others due to the resiliency of social networks, courageous civil resistance and both internal and external oppositional forces.

  • 2017

North Korea’s Juche Ideology and its Prevention of Progress

Author: Arron Miller
Abstract:

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, also known as the Hermit Kingdom has instituted a cult of personality that virtually shut down the country’s progress. The pursuit of self-reliance through a military first policy has isolated North Korea from the rest of the world and forced its infrastructure to the edge of collapse.  Three generations of one family’s rule has bred an oppressive regime that has is able to hide behind a veil of extreme social control.