Accolades A Collection of Student Scholarship

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Found 8 Accolades
  • 2017

Marching on Anacostia: The Bonus Army and the Defiance of Douglas MacArthur

Author: Nicholas Salamore
Abstract:

On July 28, 1932, federal troops were called on to restore order in Washington, DC. Following months of peaceful protest, a deadly clash between district police and World War I veterans, organized under the banner of the Bonus Army, threatened to engulf the capital in violence. Under the supervision of Army Chief of Staff, General Douglas MacArthur, infantry, cavalry, and tanks moved through the city and forced the veterans from their shanty encampments. When MacArthur reached the bridge that separated the city, President Herbert Hoover balked and ordered that the operation come to a halt. Defiant, MacArthur pushed on across the Anacostia River, leaving smoldering piles of ash and debris on a field that once housed thousands of veterans and their families.

This paper seeks to understand MacArthur’s defiance by placing it within the context of earlier interventions of federal troops into outbreaks of domestic disorder caused by labor unrest. By analyzing the Bonus Army Riot from this perspective, MacArthur’s decision to pursue a decisive end to the protest is not anomalous. Rather, what emerges is an understanding of how the Bonus Army Riot fits into the broader history of military intervention into civil unrest.

  • 2017

Averting Death: Civil Resistance, Social Networks and International Players in the Rwandan Genocide

Author: Anatasia Schafer
Abstract:

The ethnic cleansing of Tutsis in Rwanda was a neighborhood genocide where the regions, prefectures, and neighborhoods within the country all endured different experiences in April, May and June of 1994. Depending on parochial loyalties, local authorities and neighborly relationships, the genocide was experienced in very different ways. The research behind the smaller events of the genocide at the micro-level within prefectures and neighborhoods is new but developing. Analyzing the genocide within the context of the experiences and stories, along with UN reports and rescuer testimonies offers a unique, traumatic, and subaltern perspective of how the events unfolded. A socio-psychological lens helps to extract the whys and the hows of the genocide through asking questions such as: Why did the genocide occur in some places in Rwanda and not others? How were neighbors able to kill their neighbors? Why were places of safety used as sites of mass murder? And finally, how did the lack of international involvement affect the location or rate of violence and death? Swayed by fear, hatred or hope of reward, thousands of Hutu Rwandans chose to kill, rape, and rob their Tutsi neighbors. The strategy of ethnic division within local and national regions throughout Rwanda created a rift between neighbors, friends and families that ultimately ended in brutal bloodshed. However, the Rwandan genocide occurred with more vigor and at faster rates in some places over others due to the resiliency of social networks, courageous civil resistance and both internal and external oppositional forces.

  • 2017

The Future of Kurdistan in a Resource Constrained Environment

Author: Jeffrey Boyer
Abstract:

This paper, through the use of quantitative and qualitative analysis, intends to demonstrate how the continued development of Kurdistan toward a free and independent state will aid in suppressing regional sectarian strife and demonstrate the capacity for a democratic society to successfully exist in the Middle East. Analysis supports the need for an independent Kurdistan by highlighting the existence of the Kurdish diaspora in the border regions. Kurdistan must first demonstrate its capacity to stimulate a productive economic system through the oil and water industries.  Furthermore, it highlights the utility of garnering support from both the international community and national governments to recognize the Kurds as an ethnic population deserving of civil rights equivalent to the national majority. It is imperative that the Kurds strive to stifle the conflict between Syrian Kurds, Turkish Kurds, and Iranian Kurds with their respective governments. Through a cooperative effort emanating from the autonomous region of Iraqi, Kurdistan’s stability can be fomented in the region. However, this cannot be successful without securing Kurdistan’s access to currently diminishing water supplies. Furthermore, the construction, protection, and unfettered use of a pipeline that will bring Kurdish oil to the international market through Turkey into the port of Cehyan is essential. In conclusion, the moderate social atmosphere of Kurdistan, coupled with continued economic stimulation, will discount international reticence of a free and independent Kurdish state.

  • 2017

Impacts of Failed Alliances on the Warsaw Uprising of 1944

Author: Shannon Reck
Abstract:

This paper explores how the Allies, who were initially promised the full support possible to an eventual national uprising, reneged in an effort to retain the Soviet Union as an ally against the Germans. 

  • 2017

North Korea’s Juche Ideology and its Prevention of Progress

Author: Arron Miller
Abstract:

The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, also known as the Hermit Kingdom has instituted a cult of personality that virtually shut down the country’s progress. The pursuit of self-reliance through a military first policy has isolated North Korea from the rest of the world and forced its infrastructure to the edge of collapse.  Three generations of one family’s rule has bred an oppressive regime that has is able to hide behind a veil of extreme social control.

  • 2017

A Reflection on Capitalism Model of Economics:

The Economic Dilemma of Global Financial Crisis
Author: Henry Fallah
Abstract:

The global financial crisis of 2008 erupted as the result of a sharp decline in real estate investment. The fall in price levels is due to the combination of a fall in demand and a decline in consumer’s confident. As more financial resources were channeled to real estate investment, it affected many different aspects of investments. The cost of real estate fell deeply below the expectation of mortgage lenders, banking institutions, corporations, as well as financial firms who borrowed more financial resources with the expectation that investors would maximize financial output. Moreover, given that the 2008 financial crisis began in the United States, the research examines the role of capitalism in both domestic and global economy. Can economic bubbles be attributed to the principles of capitalism? This is exactly one of the main objectives of this research. To accurately determine the causes of market bubbles, the research examines the economic nature of private enterprise. Does investment give rise to market bubble? Or are bubbles more likely to occur due to the self-interest principles of Bourgeois capitalist and private financial firms that simply concentrate on maximizing financial assets rather than achieving aggregate economic output? Considering the interplay of private firms in a free market system, with limited government interference, capitalism is characterized as a system in which crisis are inevitable.

  • 2017

The Utility-Squared Project: Design Framework for Achieving the Sustainable Centralization of Municipal Utility Services in Developing Countries and Emerging Markets

Author: Robert Hanlon
Abstract:

The modern, urbanized society has become reliant on five key services to sustain a healthy and functioning populace, at any measurable scale; (1) access to a stable food supply, (2) availability of treated (potable) water, (3) the effective removal and treatment of wastewater, (4) the proper disposal of municipal solid waste, and (5) the availability of usable energy (e.g. electricity, fuel). As the recent decade has demonstrated, the stability and global status of a nation at large may be compromised if these services are interrupted, compromised, or simply not provided at the necessary capacities. The Utility2 Project presented in this paper represents the framework for an organization, comprised of two components; the U1 Program and U2 Facility, which deliver the five key services for an underserviced population. While developed countries and societies benefit from an established and functioning system of utility infrastructure and provisions, the prospective Target Locations for this design study are not as fortunate; the Utility2 Project implements a grass-roots approach in developing regions, presently void of such services or providers, like so many that currently exist in emerging markets and developing countries (e.g. India, southeast Asia, Eastern Europe), along with the many war-torn regions left without functioning municipalities and infrastructure. Using a combination of novel technologies, Big-Picture engineering, and a Projectized Organization with non-profit-values, the Utility2 Project’s objective is to provide a readily feasible solution to this global problem.

  • 2017

Bridging Cosmologies: Gaspar Antonio Chi and Maya Cultural Continuity in Colonial Yucatán

Author: Collin Lee
Abstract:

This paper is an examination of how the Maya were able to preserve their indigenous cultural and religious traditions after the conquest despite intensive efforts by the Spanish Franciscan authorities to eradicate them and replace them with Catholic European values. A close examination of the life of the famous Maya interpreter Gaspar Antonio Chi is used as a case study to show how a high-profile Maya elite was able to secretly act as a religious authority to his people in order to preserve Maya religion and culture after the conquest.