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An analysis of the 11th-century primary sources surrounding Pope Urban II and his decision to launch the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont in 1095 AAD primarily motivated as a response to modern interpretations of the Crusades that rely on anachronistic or single-minded arguments. This paper discusses how the Cluniac-Gregorian Reforms, the socio-political environment of Western Europe, and Urban's personal religious convictions motivated him to unite the European nobility under the Papal banner in a nigh-unprecedented fight against the Turkish invaders of Byzantium and the Levant for the reward of eternal salvation.
This project designs elements of the structure for the Flight Dynamics Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. The primary objective is to present a preliminary structural design to support a new high velocity wind tunnel. The new building will be sized based on the commercially available tunnel selected. The scope of work for this project will include structural engineering and project management and for the proposed Flight Dynamics Research Facility. Structural design and analysis will support replacement of a 20-foot vertical spin tunnel and a 12-foot low speed tunnel with a single new tunnel with significantly higher flow velocity and flow quality.
This project will establish the organization U.S. Chopstick, in the southwestern United States. U.S. Chopsticks will produce 580 million pairs of disposable, wooden chopsticks per year in order to tap into the global demand of 80 billion pairs of disposable chopsticks annually. The project deliverables include the purchasing of a manufacturing facility of approximately 60,000 square feet, approximately 300 acres of land, chopstick manufacturing equipment, and warehouse equipment. The facility will be used to produce chopsticks at a rate of 2 million per day while the surrounding land will be used for the growth and harvest of natural resources congruent with the manufacture of chopsticks in order to promote sustainability. Given the nature of this project’s deliverable and the possibility for high consumption of natural resources this project will also aim to partner with local timber mills in order to acquire scrap wood that may be recycled through the creation of disposable chopsticks. The underlying theme of this project is sustainability. Through the effective use of harvesting techniques and tactics it is possible to meet demand while simultaneously "giving back". One program to be enlisted once operations begin is to plant two trees for every one tree consumed for production. While this is one of many programs to be enlisted it is a defining program of the underlying ethics defining this project.
The Wars of Liberation in Prussian history was a seminal moment in two main ways: a unifying patriotic-nationalism and the rise of valorous masculinity. German patriotic-nationalism was based on an imagined community that was constructed using the past as a model for future prosperity and change through the creation of a new objective reality in the present. This objective reality was valorous masculinity as a method of overcoming French subjugation. Trauma incurred on men during the defeat and occupation destroyed old gender ideals and beliefs. The trauma was so extensive that proponents of patriotic-nationalism were able to propagate the idea of valorous masculinity so thoroughly that it became hegemonized throughout Prussia. This spawned the willingness of men to sacrifice their lives in defense of the Fatherland that lasted at least until 1945.
On America’s first day of World War II, December 8th 1941, United States air power in the Philippines was decimated by raids of Japanese heavy bombers and light pursuit aircraft from installations on Formosa. To add insult to the injury inflicted by Japan on the fleet at Pearl Harbor only a few hours prior, the Japanese attack force caught the American Far East Air Force off guard and on the ground. Although historians have analyzed both the strategic and logistical foundations of United States planning for Philippines defense, historiography placing the two side by side and highlighting their incongruence is sparse. Throughout the summer of 1941 increasing faith in a grandiose aerial strategy for the Philippines rapidly displaced decades of strategic neglect toward the islands. The feasibility of this strategy, debatable from the onset, was shattered in the first day of the war due to the poor correlation between strategy and logistics. The unequal relationship between strategy and logistics was inherent to the United States’ military appraisal of the Philippines. When the complex deterrent strategy in the Pacific came to fruition and rapid buildup of American airpower in the Philippines began in 1941, the abrupt changes manifested in horror and awe the logistical deficiencies in decades of the archipelago’s defense planning.
The Italian Renaissance of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries produced some of the world’s most beautiful pieces of art. The true power of art for the historian extends far beyond an appreciation of the beauty or an examination of changing techniques. Art did not develop in a vacuum but rather was a product of a complex series of social, economic, political, and intellectual factors. Failing to recognize and evaluate this wider context diminishes art’s historical value. Essentially, we deny the art its voice as a culturally-bound artifact. This essay presents a small sampling of the developments and trends in the study of Renaissance art. Following the developments of social history in the 1960s, historians began to examine how art influenced wider cultural and economic changes and vice versa. Art was a way for the Renaissance individual to send messages about their social power, political influence, and economic success to those around them. Due to its high cost, patronage was a luxury of the elite and rising merchant classes. Art became a repository of the dominant social values of the emergent urban-elite class that developed in the wake of the commercial revolution. As merchants, bankers, and traders gained wealth and political power, as a result of the luxury trade in the Mediterranean, they sought to emulate the culture of the old landed elite. As a result, their values set the new standard for the urban culture of art.
This project focuses on the Integration of Telehealth Technology into treatment of Substance Use Disorder (SUD) for veterans. This intervention will extend access and reduce barriers to veterans who are treated for SUD that may have a variety of constraints that interfere with consistent treatment. Telehealth in SUD would increase access for veterans with transportation issues, family care or job (scheduling) constraints, in addition to providing access to veterans living in rural or under-served locations. With a pre-existing telehealth infrastructure in place at the VA, the integration of this project could assist many veterans and their families outside of the safety net of brick and mortar VA Medical Centers. Minor software adjustments could easily integrate: medication compliance assurance, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and implement 12-Step therapy focused on treatment of SUD patients. This project can positively affect the lives of thousands of veterans and their families, by reaching those who cannot travel to VA Medical Centers for SUD treatment and aftercare.
During the creation of new nation-states after World War I (Treaty of Sèvres, 1920), there was a strong possibility that there would also be a Kurdish state in the Middle East. With Turkey, Iraq and Iran agreeing not to recognize an independent Kurdish state, the issue of Kurdish independence had not even been included in the subsequent Treaty of Lausanne (1923). An almost century-long conflict recently took a new identity with Kurdish fighters including the PKK (currently recognized as a terrorist organization by both Turkey and the U.S.) and its affiliates taking the front lines in the fight against the Islamic State (IS) in Syria, as well as in Iraq (Peshmerga forces). As Turkey’s Kurdish question continues to present a challenge for both the scholars and practitioners of international relations (IR) and diplomacy from the standpoint of conflict resolution, Turkey’s Kurdish policy concerning the century-long Kurdish-Turkish conflict has broader implications throughout Syria and Iraq, considering the two other major conflicts going on in the region. This research mainly focuses on the Kurdish conflict in Turkey with the intent to examine the fabric of the Turkish-Kurdish conflict; identify some of the relevant issues and outside elements factoring in; and elaborate on what has been achieved and what still remains to be done for a long-lasting solution to the conflict.